понеділок, 25 серпня 2014 р.

Business English, Australian English

Website instead of web site (http://grammarist.com/spelling/web-site-website/)
End user, but end-users software and end-user support. Same for Front end and back-end development.
Login is a noun. Log-in is a verb.
Advertisement for. Never use: advertisement about
And and But can be used at the start of the sentence to serve as a conjunction. (Australia Government Style Manual 2002)
Enquire means ask. Inquire means seek for information or make an inquiry.
Affect is a verb means influence. Effect - means cause or result. Better to avoid using effect as verb, better use make.
Speak to means just tell something. Speak with means having a dialog.
Licence (noun) means permit for something. License is a verb meaning to grant a licence or authorise.
Advice and Advise - the same as licence and license.
When wirting web address, general advice would be to use www. form with or without http://
SCAN page 21
To highlight a word, use italics or single quotation (inverted comma). Do not continue to use italics or single quotation mark when term is used later in the document.

  • First word of a sentence
  • Always capitalise I
  • Capitalise the first word in a sentence that is a direct quote or is direct speeh
  • Capitalise  position titles when writing the title of a specifically named person (otherwise not with an exception: capitalise position when writing an address even if the recepient is unknown)
  • In legal document capitalise generic elements or words that have been specifically defined to differentiate the words from the text: Party, Firm, Schedule
  • Some organisation might choose to capitalise some generic elements, terms or word

Topic headings are short: few words only. PURPOSE, BACKGROUND, DISCUSSION, Current Situation, Past Situation.
Talking headings, also identify a topic, but cover what is said in the content: HOW ORGANISATION CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT. Direct and indirect questions are good examples of talkative headings.
Avoid using full capitals for headings that are longer than half a line.
Do not use terminal punctuation (except for ?in headings.

For a stand-alone bulleted list no terminal punctuation is used. If the list starts with a leading sentence that ends with a semicolon (:) and/or points are sentences or continuation of the sentence: correct terminal punctuation is required in list points.

Always use the same grammatical format for like items. Parallel contruct.

In general text usage of full word is preferable instead of construction.
A full stop (point: .) is used to show a long pause.

Question mark: ? Do not use a question mark after an indirect question.
Exclamation mark: ! Usage of the exclamation mark in business writing is extremely rare. Use it only for positive emotions.

Semicolon:;  In a list, use semicolon if the sentence in the list has commas, for ex.
leadership, including communication and motivation;
development, including mentoring.

Dash: - Dash uses to show a break in thought. However, in business writing, the preference is to use colon or comma.

Forward slash: / Date with a forward slash: 23/04/09.

Quotation marks: ' ' Natalie said, 'Yes, I will attend the convention'.
For long quotations (30 words), begin a new paragraph with Italic or smaller font.

Plain English writting:
- Use active voice vs passive
- Use positive language

Use words economically by avoiding unnecessary words and removing complicated vocabluary. Get rid of long-winded phrases that you wouldn't say if you were talking to the reader. Use the Read Aloud Test (RAT) to check if you would say what you have written.

whereas -> where or while
Pursuant to your orders -> As you requested
of even date -> today
As per your request -> As you requested
We are this date in receipt -> Today we received
advantageous -> helpful
anticipate -> expect
at all times -> always
at this point in time -> at this time
concur -> agree
during the course of -> during
during the time that -> while
endeavour -> try
for the purpose of -> because, for
in an effort to -> to
on a daily basis -> daily, every day
prior to that time -> before
utilise -> use
with the exception of -> except of
Avoid using old fashioned and stuffy words: hitherto, whereby, thereby, herein, therein, thereof, heretofore, whilst, albeit

Cut informal words and phrases like: mate, in a bind, guys, real good...
Cut cliches: one good deed deserves another, pay your money and take your choice, fresh as daisy, call a spade a spade, have a chip on your shoulder, all in the same boat, fool's paradise, draw line at, a penny for your thoughts, time to kill, burst your bubble, work like a dog, get the sack, familiarity breeds contempt, that does the trick.
Cut redundancy: few in number -> few, absolutely essential -> essential, circle around -> circle, large in size -> large, brief in duration -> brief, repeat again -> again, each and every -> all, gather together -> gather, filled to capacity -> filled,...

Use an active voice. Passive voice is used to emphasise the action rather than the subject (or person). In passive voice, nothing is ever anyone's fault. Things happen to people.
Use passive voice to be tactful by not naming the subject (or person) or to describe a condition in which the subject or (person) is unknown or unimportant.

Use specific references instead of non-specific words. When writing them anyway, ask yourself if the reader will know exactly what I mean.
Non-specific words: could, may, might, usually, would, some, ought to, probably, should, most, many, try.

Use position language.

0-9 as general text: zero, one, two...
- >=10 as numerals: 15, 17 (except when a number begins a sentence)
numerals in tables, figures, appendices: See Appendix 1
-  do not use apostrophe: 1990s
comma between two sets of numerals: In 2009, 45 employers will be transferred...
comma between thousands and millions: 32,000.00

on 3 September 2009
on Tuesday 18 October 2009
- Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul: 1 Jan 08
dd/mm/yy: 10/02/09
currency: $42,130.09; 10c; $3,212; A$456.90; NZ$54.95;  4.7 million
tel numbers no brackets: 02 9130 8890
do not use an apostrophe when presenting decades. 1990s

am, pm, min, hr, h: 2.45 pm
the 24 hour system: 0930 (do not use colons and spaces 23:45, 09 30 am)

space: 3 cm, 5 kg, 4 km
no space: 5%
a forward slash: 75 km/h

Address: Australian states: Vic, Tas, Qld, NSW, NT, SA. ACT, WA

Fonts: Times New Roman (11pt), Arial (11 pt), Verdana (9 pt), Calibri (11 pt)

BUSINESS WRITING, Style guide by Verne Ordman

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